In our SAT lexicon, we have summarised the most important technical terms for you in a glossary and given simplified explanations.
- AC 3
Output for Dolby Digital signal
SES (Société Européene des Satellites) satellite system. Analogue and digital transponders in the frequency range 10.70-12.75 GHz.
- AV Programme position
Preferred programme position on TV set for external connections such as Scart and HDMI
Azimuth is the orientation to the left (east) of the satellite antenna that is pointing to the south either to the left (east) or to the right (west) in the direction of the desired satellite.
- BER - Bit Error Rate
Describes the quality of a received and demodulated data signal. The lower the bit error rate, the better the signal.
- CAM - Conditional Access Module
Decryption decoder, which uses a smartcard to decrypt the encrypted radio and TV signals.
Abbreviation for Community Antenna Television. Reception of radio and TV programs via a community antenna. Applied internationally for cable TV networks as cable television or broadband cable networks.
Consumer Electronics Control, abbreviated as CEC, this makes available control functions such as "One Touch Play/Record", "System Stand-by", "Preset Transfer", etc., that act across all components. The CEC interface is derived from AV.link as the predominant control standard in Europe up to now.
- Channel package
The channel package for a digital transponder normally includes several TV and radio channels. Each channel package has a fixed assignment for the transponder transmission frequency, for the polarisation (horizontal or vertical), for the symbol rate and for the Viterbi rate or error rate.
- CI - Common Interface
Internationally standardised interface for CA modules
- CI+ - Common Interface
Further development of CI for CI+ modules
Coded Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
Digital modulation process that is used for DVB-T transmission.
Conax coding system
- Conditional Access (CA) system
Controls user access to services and programmes which are encrypted for reasons of copyright or for commercial reasons.
- DAB - Digital Audio Broadcasting
Designation for digital radio. The system offers capacities for data transmission as well. Data compression is done via MPEG-2.
- Data rate
Data bits transmitted per second. Is expressed in kbit/s or Mbit/s. The higher the data rate the better the quality of the transmitted signal.
- Data reduction
Compression of video and audio signals. Redundant information is discarded.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. This features permits automatic integration into a network. Automatic assignment of the IP address, subnet mask, standard gateway and DNS server. As a result these parameters do not need to be entered in a network in conjunction with a router.
- DiSEqC - Digital Satellite Equipment Control
DiSEqCTM(Digital Satellite Equipment Control) is a communication system between a satellite receiver (master) and the peripheral satellite components (slaves), such as LNBs, multi-switches, rotating antenna systems. It is a single master/multi-slave system, i.e. there is only ever one master in the satellite system. All activities start from the master.
- DiSEqC components
If DiSEqCTM switching matrices are cascaded, the master receiver must transmit the DiSEqCTM signal several times, so that all DiSEqCTM multi-switches in the cascade receive their commands. These days, DiSEqCTM components (slaves) must be reverse compatible, i.e. respond to the analog switching criteria from receivers that are only equipped with H/V and 22 kHz control signals. A DiSEqCTM switching matrix will work with analog switching criteria until the DiSEqCTM command from the master is received. All analog switching criteria are then ignored.
- DNS Server
Domain Name System server. Is used to determine IP addresses (other PCs or receivers) within a network with DHCP function enabled.
- Dolby Digital 5.1
Dolby Digital is a sound transmission process that allows digital surround sound to be output on a home cinema system.
- DTH - Direct to home
Reception of satellite programs in a household via its own satellite reception antenna.
- DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting
DVB refers to the transmission method (S = satellite, C = cable, T = terrestrial).
Continuative DVB-S signal for HDTV.
- DVB subtitles
DVB subtitles are lines that are broadcast along with the video image. They provide written information on the video content and spoken content.
Ready for recording via a USB interface.
Angle of inclination of the satellite antenna with regard to the satellite.
- EN 50494
European standard in which the DiSEqCTM command set has been specified for the SCR single-cable systems.
- EPG - Electronic Programme Guide
Electronic programme guide.
- eSATA connection
Connection for an external hard disk using the eSATA standard.
- Ethernet interface
Interface to connect networkable devices to one another.
European Satellite operator, based in Paris. Many orbit positions and European customers. Transponders in the frequency range 10.70-12.75 GHz.
- FAT and FAT32
File systems for storage media
Abbreviations for favourites.
In the case of the receiver: Favourites list
Colour baseband signal for the transmission of colour video signals
FEC is the abbreviation for “Forward Error Correction”. A technique for reducing the error rate of data transmission. Additional bits are inserted into the data stream, so that error-correction algorithms can be used on reception. The FEC error rate corresponds to the Viterbi rate.
- Feed system
Satellite reception system consisting of LNB, polarisation switch and housing.
Programmes hat can be received free.
- FTP - File Transfer Protocol
File transfer method. FTP is a network protocol for the transmission of files over IP(Internet Protocol) networks
Fully high resolution for HDTV (max. 1920 x 1080 pixels)
GNU is not Unix, it is an open operating system for software developers.
General Public License is a software license that grants end users authorization to use, study, distribute (copy) and modify the software.
Graphic User Interface
Graphic user interface of the receiver (menu)
Hybrid broadcast broadband TV
is a pan-European initiative that connects TV programs and added value offerings from the Internet by using open standards.
- HDCP - High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection
Coding system which protects the HDMI and DVI interfaces for the secure transmission of video and audio data.
- HDTV - High Definition Television
High-resolution television with a resolution up to 5 times higher or finer than PAL or NTSC.
- HD - Ready
This is a label created by the EICTA (European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Industry Technology Association) for equipment that is capable of reproducing HDTV.
- HDMI - High Definition Multimedia Interface
Digital interface for digital video and audio data transmission between TV and receiver (preferred for HDTV).
HD+ is a digital platform of HD PLUS GmbH, an affiliate of satellite operator SES Astra, for high-resolution TV programs that must be paid for.
Hybrid Fibre Coax is the designation for a hybrid solution in the connection area of network subscribers, in which glass fibre-optic cable is not laid all the way through from the transmitter to the sender but instead use is made of of existing coax copper cable from a certain point.
- High Band
Satellite frequency range between 11.70 GHz and 12.75 GHz.
Another designation for MPEG-4.
- IP address
Internet Protocol address. Every unit that can be used in a network has a dedicated IP address so as to obtain a unique assignment (address) for e.g. the exchange of data.
- JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
Image compression technique.
- LAN - Local Area Network
Automatic programme list update function for new programmes. New programmes are automatically added to the end of the list or replace existing older channels.
- LNB - Low Noise Block converter (feed system)
Converts the satellite downlink frequencies into the Sat IF.
- Low Band
Satellite frequency range between 10.70 GHz and 11.70 GHz.
Modulation Error Rate
MER shown on the display is synonymous with SNR (signal radio ratio) in this case. Describes the quality of a received and demodulated data signal. The higher the value, the better the signal.
File format for compressed audio files
MPEG is the abbreviation for Moving Picture Experts Group, a working group that formulates internationally applicable standards for the digital compression of video and audio. MPEG -2 has become established as the standard for compression of digital TV signals. MPEG-2 works up to a data rate of 100 MBit/s.
A further development of MPEG-2 with even higher data compression, intended for HDTV transmissions.
- Multifeed reception
Reception from multiple satellites via a reception antenna.
Nagravision coding system (also called Nagra).
- NAS hard disk
Network storage facility that all the devices in the network can access.
Connection of several PCs that as a result can communicate and exchange data.
- Network switch
A switch to connect with one another multiple devices that can be networked.
The channel identification number is also referred to as the Network ID or NIT.
File system for storage media
- Open Source
This is a software whose license regulations allow free access to the source code and universal redistribution.
- OSD - On Screen Display
Displays by the receiver on the TV screen (e.g. main menu)
Designation for a software download via satellite.
Analogue TV standard
- Pan & Scan Format
Pan & Scan Format allows content with a 4:3 aspect ratio to be adapted for a TV set with a 16:9 image ratio.
- Parabolic reflector
Most common form for a satellite (reception) antenna. Concentrates the electromagnetic waves in the feed system (LNB).
- Pay TV
Television channels available on subscription (e.g. Sky). Encrypted transmitters which can be decrypted only by using the appropriate smartcard. As a rule these services are subscription-only.
- PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)
A technology used to convert an analogue audio signal into a digital one so that it can be emitted on the SPDIF output.
Abbreviation for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, standard.
The PID (Packet IDentification) number is an identification number for video signals and audio signals in the digital data stream of DVB-MPEG -2 signals. The receiver uses the PID number to create a unique assignment for the video and audio data transmission. The PCR PID is the identification number for the synchronization signal. The PID PCR is normally identical to the video PID. For programmes broadcast in multiple languages, the audio PD can be entered manually to assign a different language to the TV programme. After the PID is entered, the digital receiver automatically selects the audio data identified by the PID number from the data stream and assigns it to the video signal.
Service to adjust broadcast format to the TV set.
Personal Identification Number. Usually a 4-digit numeric code which must be entered to unlock the unit to allow access to certain functions or programs so as to prevent unauthorized access.
Picture In Picture
The individual transponders on satellites transmit on two different (polarisation) planes (horizontal and vertical). This increase the capacity.
- Programme package
A transponder’s programme package most often contains a variety of TV and radio programmes. Each programme package has a fixed assignment to the transponder’s transmission frequency, to the polarisation (horizontal and vertical), to the symbol rate and to the Viterbi rate or error rate.
- QAM - Quadrature-Amplitude-Modulation
Digital modulation process with phase shift keying, which is used for transmissions in cable networks.
- QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
Digital modulation process that is used for satellite transmission (8PSK is also used in connection with HDTV).
- Red Bull Media House
This comprises different services from Red Bull, such as Red Bull TV, Red Bull YouTube™ videos and music as well as exclusive videos, 360° videos, Servus TV, image gallery and IkonoTv.
Video signal made up of three individual colour signals (red, green, blue)
Device to connect multiple devices that can be networked, e.g. a computer with a receiver.
- SAT IF signal
Receiver input signal, satellite intermediate frequency
- Scart cable
21-pin connecting cable (e.g. receiver/TV)
- SCR single cable system - Satellite Channel Router
The single-cable system is used to distribute digital Sat IF signals (including HDTV) and terrestrial signals over one cable to up to eight receivers. There is no limit on the variety of channels, i.e. the complete range of channels from one or two satellites is transmitted. Switching and the transponder selection are undertaken in the feed system or in the matrix and are controlled by the receiver using a special DiSEqCTMcommand set in accordance with EN 50494. Each receiver is allocated a fixed subscriber frequency over which it receives its channels. A twin receiver requires two such subscriber frequencies. The transponder selection and conversion to the subscriber frequencies is undertaken using special tuner modules, so-called SCR (Satellite Channel Router), that are installed in the feed system or in the matrix. The Kathrein single-cable system satisfies the single-cable standard in accordance with EN 50494, i.e. all the components of a single-cable system that satisfy this standard can be installed in a satellite system
- SHOUTcast Internet radio
Internet radio provider which offers over 4,000 radio stations.
- SI data
Service Information data
Data with information, such as the programme name, included in the DVB data stream.
- Single cable matrix
Matrix for the distribution of satellite programmes in the 1st Sat IF for cable networks with a tree structure. Control with DiSEqCTM commands.
The skew defines the deviation from the vertical polarisation of the reception signal from the geographical vertical in reception units for use with geostationary satellites. For optimal reception the LNB must be installed before the satellite disk, inclined by the skew angle.
Card from Pay TV provider to decrypt its channels
- SMATV - Satellite delivered Master Antenna Television System
Communal unit that has been expanded for the reception of satellite signals.
Sony/Philips Digital Interface (S/PDIF) is an interface specification for the electrical or optical transmission of digital stereo audio signals between various devices for user in the consumer electronics sector.
- Standard gateway
Is used as an interface between two networks or computers that are linked via a router. As a result the it is possible to transmit data.
- Standard fibre-optic
Transmission using glass fibre-optic cables.
Transmission of data (recordings) in real time
- Subnet mask
Defines an IP address range in a subnet (small independent network).
- Symbol rate
The symbol rate describes the quantity of data that is transmitted per second. The symbol rate is measured in MSymbols/s and is equal to the number of symbols received per second.
The signal-to-noise ratio (also signal/interference ratio, abbreviated as S/N ratio or SNR) is a way to define the technical quality of a desired signal that is overlaid by a noise signal. It is defined at the ratio between the median power of the desired signal and the median noise power of the interference signal.
- Time-shift function
A transponder is a frequency converter which receives TV and radio signals broadcast from the earth, converts them and then rebroadcasts them to the earth at a different frequency. A satellite has several transponders. Analogue transponders transmit only one TV channel and possibly multiple radio channels on a single transmission frequency. Digital transponders transmit several TV and several radio programmes simultaneously on a single transmission frequency. If a channel provider is broadcasting several TV channels via a digital transponder, we refer to the provider's channel package. The terms "digital transponder" and "channel package" have the same meaning.
- tvtv-gracenote service
A professionally edited EPG, which delivers information for approx. 160 programmes up to 14 days in advance.
System for network-based communication and transmission of audio and video content.
Kathrein Android and iOS applications for control, programming, streaming of programmes and recording. These are available free of charge in the respective app stores.
Ultra High Frequency
Frequency range for terrestrial broadcasting.
UHF B4 = 470-606 MHz
UHF B5 = 606-862 MHz
Stands for "Universal Plug and Play". Further information is available from openconnectivity.org.
Upscaling is a form of processing of the picture signal in TV technology by which the original resolution of the source material is increased to a higher video resolution by interpolating the missing pixels in the higher resolution.
A USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standardized bus, which serves as a serial interface for computer ports.
- USB hub
A USB-hub (Universal Serial Bus) is a USB device that distrubutes a USB port to multiple ports.
Coordinated Universal Time
- VCR/DVR connection
Connection for an external recorder (such as a video or DVD recorder).
- VFD display
Vacuum Fluorescent Display
This is a kind of display found in some of Kathrein’s receivers.
Very High Frequency
Frequency range for terrestrial broadcasting.
VHF B1 = 47-68 MHz
VHF B3 0 = 174 - 230 MHz
- Video bit rate
Amount of data of a digitized video signal that is transmitted per second.
- Viterbi rate
The Viterbi rate (code rate, error rate) characterizes the error protection used by the programme provider. The DVB standard provides the following values: 1/2 - 2/3 - 3/4 - 5/6 - 7/8
- Wake on LAN
This function allows a unit, e.g. NAS, to be “woken up” by another one, e.g. UFSconnect 906, if connected to the home network.
- Web interface
This is a Web interface to enable interaction between two or more systems (e.g. receiver to PC). As a result it is possible, e.g., to transfer data.
XVID is a free implementation of the MPEG-4 video codec that was originally based on the OpenDivX source code.
Type of transmission for video signals (analog HDMI).
The YPbPr signal transmits the brightness/luminance information Y and the two items of colour difference/chrominance information Pb and Pr separately.
Internet video portal, which allows one to view video clips free of charge.
- 8PSK (8-Phase Shift Keying)
Digital modulation process used for HDTV satellite transmission.